Consultancy: Research on the determinants of detention in Libya

Dansk Flygtningehjælp

Ph.d. & forskning
Udlandet (øvrige)

Terms of Reference
Research on the determinants of detention in Libya

The MMC is a leading source for independent and high-quality data, research, analysis and expertise on mixed migration. The MMC aims to increase understanding of mixed migration, to positively impact global and regional migration policies, to inform evidence-based protection responses for people on the move and to stimulate forward thinking in public and policy debates on mixed migration. The MMC’s overarching focus is on human rights and protection for all people on the move. The MMC focuses on 6 core regions, with regional teams in each of these: Eastern Africa & Yemen; North Africa; West Africa; the Middle East, Asia and Europe. Read more about the MMC here: The MMC is part of the Danish Refugee Council (DRC), a leading humanitarian organization responding to displacement and mixed migration in 40 countries.

Since 2014, MMC has been implementing the Mixed Migration Monitoring Mechanism initiative (4Mi), a growing network of monitors stationed in key migration hubs in more than 20 countries along 7 major migration routes, who are interviewing refugees and migrants on the move on a continuous basis, providing a solid evidence base on the needs and protection incidents facing people on the move. Read more about 4Mi here:

Libya is an important destination and transit point for people on the move. Each year tens of thousands of people arrive to Libya, in the hope of finding a safer or brighter future.

An increasing number of reports has focused on documenting the conditions, human rights violations and abuses within Libya’s detention centres. These reports describe conditions of massive overcrowding, dire sanitary conditions and inadequate medical care[1]. Furthermore, widespread abuses are documented including torture, beatings, burning with cigarette butts and electric shocks amongst others.[2]

Although much has been discussed on the potential harmful effects of the current detention system in Libya, little is known about arrest and detention patterns and which profiles are more vulnerable to being detained. At first instance, both 4Mi and IOM-DTM data[3] shows that a significant majority of detainees in Libya are from Eastern African nationalities. An account from Amnesty International also reports that Christians in Libya face specific vulnerabilities and are often subjected to abuses and ill-treatment including inside detention centres[4]. However, an analysis on socio-demographic determinants of detention in Libya has not been conducted so far.

The Mixed Migration Centre in North Africa is seeking a highly qualified consultant to conduct research on the determinants of detention of refugee and migrants in Libya.

Under the direct supervision of the 4Mi Project Manager, the purpose of the consultancy is to produce a research report exploring what makes people on the move more likely to end up in detention in Libya.

The report aims at looking into more detail at the socio-demographic profile of detainees including nationality, ethnicity and religion. The objective is to analyze 4Mi data in order to determine the likelihood of specific profiles being detained in Libya and explore related reasons.


A: Data Management
The consultant is expected to clean provided 4Mi dataset and make it readily available for quantitative analysis (preferably in STATA). This, not exclusively, includes creating dummy variables for all relevant categories and labelling all variables. The raw data will be provided by MMC in .xls format.

The deliverables for phase A are:

    • Cleaned dataset (in .dta or .csv)
    • Related .do file (or equivalent if other software is used)
    • A log file reporting the changes done, descriptive statistics and a table with labelled variables.
    • Outline of the research report
    • Introduction and literature review section (2,500-3,000 words)
    • Methodology section (1,000 – 1,500 words)
    • Full draft of the research report (8,000 – 12,000 words).
    This phase will be considered completed upon approval of all deliverables by the 4Mi Project Manager.


    B: Literature review and methodology
    The consultant is expected to draft a literature review section based on available research on detention. MMC will provide an initial list of recommended readings. The review should answer the following questions:

    • What do we know about detention in Libya?
    • To what extent the profile of detainees has been investigated in research?
    • Based on the above, the literature review should formulate clear hypotheses concerning

    • What are the expected factors that make migrants and refugees more or less likely to be detained in Libya?

    A methodology section should also be drafted based on both available 4Mi data and drafted literature review to tests proposed hypotheses. At this stage it is expected that the research report will adopt a sequential mixed-methods design. Hypotheses may first be tested via logit/probit regression and qualitative data available within 4Mi dataset shall be used to further corroborate and, to the possible extent, explain the findings. Alternative methods can be suggested.

    The deliverables for phase B are:

      This phase will be considered completed upon approval of all deliverables by the 4Mi Project Manager.


      C: Data analysis and report drafting
      Based on formulated hypotheses the consultant will undertake required analysis to test them. The main results will be described in the main section of the report. These should be corroborated and explained drawing on both qualitative data in the 4Mi dataset and secondary research.

      The deliverables for phase C are:

        Tentatively, the outline of the report will include a two-page executive summary, introduction, review of the available literature, a description of the research contribution, the methods and related limitations, main findings and conclusions.

        The research report should be written in English, using an accessible and plain language. In drafting the report, the consultant will adhere to the MMC editorial guidelines.

        A first draft of the report will be reviewed and edited by the 4Mi Project Manager. A second draft will be sent for further review and editing to MMC Geneva. This phase will be considered completed upon approval of both 4Mi Project Manager and MMC Geneva.


        TOTAL DAYS



        The duration of the assignment is estimated to 16 working days, payable as per below schedule:


        Contract signed


        Phase A



        Phase B


        Phase C



        This is a home-based consultancy and no travel is foreseen. There are no other entitlements or benefit attached to this contract.


        • Advanced degree (Master or PhD) in quantitative research methods, preferably applied to migration studies or social sciences.
        • Proven experience in designing and leading research on migration, detention and similar relevant topics.
        • Excellent command of quantitative research methods and related software applications (preferably STATA).
        • A proven knowledge and understanding (e.g. through prior publications) of mixed migration dynamics in North Africa.
        • Familiarity with the Libyan context.
        • Excellent analytical and reporting skills.
        • Excellent command of spoken and written English


        • Previous experience with 4Mi methodology and data
        • Previous experience with MMC or DRC
        • Knowledge of detention system in Libya

        Commitments: DRC has a Humanitarian Accountability Framework, outlining its global accountability commitments. All staff are required to contribute to the achievement of this framework (

        Candidates should submit their application no later than July 22 to including:

        • Cover Letter
        • CV including references of previous relevant publications (max 4pages)
        • Daily fee (all inclusive; in USD)

        Applications submitted through the DRC website will NOT be considered and must be sent to the email noted above. Please specify in the subject: Research on the determinants of detention in Libya

        [1] Human Rights Watch, 2019.

        [2] Amnesty International, 2017.

        [3] IOM-DTM, 2018.

        [4] Amnesty International, 2015.

        DRC as an employer
        By working in DRC, you will be joining a global workforce of around 8000 employees in 40 countries. We pride ourselves on our:

        • Professionalism, impact & expertise
        • Humanitarian approach & the work we do
        • Purpose, meaningfulness & own contribution
        • Culture, values & strong leadership
        • Fair compensation & continuous development

        Read more here about what our employees say about working in DRC.

        DRC’s capacity to ensure the protection of and assistance to refugees, IDP’s and other persons of concern depends on the ability of our staff to uphold and promote the highest standards of ethical and professional conduct in relation DRC’s values and Code of Conduct, including safeguarding against sexual exploitation, abuse and harassment. DRC conducts thorough and comprehensive background checks as part of the recruitment process. Visit to read more about what we do to secure robust safeguarding mechanisms.

        If you have questions or are facing problems with the online application process, please visit


        Application due:


        North Africa Region

        Contract type:


        ABOUT DRC
        DRC (Danish Refugee Council), founded in Denmark in 1956, is Denmark’s largest and the world’s leading non-profit, independent, rights-based refugee organization.

        Our vision is to assist refugees, internally displaced people and their host communities to a dignified life. We protect lives and human rights and empower beneficiaries throughout conflict displacement by providing shelter, food, and hope in terms of work, education and integration towards a sustainable future.

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        Ansøgningsfrist d. 22.07.2019

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